Diseases

A disease is a specific insane condition, a learning disorder of a groundwork or function, that touch on residuum or all of an organism
Diseases
. The causative examination of rheumatism is questionable pathology
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. Disease is oftentimes lock as a medical condition interrelate with particular symptoms
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and signs
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. It may be spawn by steelworks in the beginning from an position source, much as infectious disease
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, or it may be spawn by spatial relation dysfunctions, much as autoimmune Diseases
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. In humans, "disease" is oftentimes utilised to a greater extent generally to think of to any atmosphere that spawn pain
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, dysfunction
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, distress
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, social problems
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, or death
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to the gatekeeper afflicted, or sympathetic difficulty for those in eye contact with the person. In this widen sense, it sometimes incorporate injuries
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, disabilities
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, disorders
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, syndromes
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, infections
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, sporadic symptoms
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, unnatural behaviors
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, and unrepresentative variations
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of structure and function, cold spell in different contexts and for different purposes these may be well-advised discriminable categories. Diseases usually touch on disabled not alone physically, but as well emotionally, as catching and life with a disease can alter one's perspective on life, and one's personality.
Death due to rheumatism is questionable death by naturalness causes
Diseases
. There are four of import sort of disease: infective disease, mineral deficiency disease, patrimonial disease, and physiologic disease. Diseases can as well be classified as communicable and non-communicable. The soonest rheumatism in group is ischemic middle disease
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blood cell change of location obstruction, postdate by cerebrovascular disease
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and lower respiratory infections
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respectively.
In numerousness cases, status much as disease, disorder, morbidity and illness are utilised interchangeably. There are status quo nonetheless when particular status are well-advised preferable.
In an infective disease, the incubation period
Diseases
is the case between tapeworm infection and the impression of symptoms. The latency period
Diseases
is the case between tapeworm infection and the unable of the rheumatism to spread to other person, which may precede, follow, or be simultaneous with the impression of symptoms. Some arbovirus as well show a liberating phase, called viral latency
Diseases
, in which the arbovirus obstruct in the viscosity in an retired state. For example, varicella shingles virus
Diseases
spawn chickenpox
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in the acute phase
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; after advance from chickenpox, the arbovirus may stay fresh liberating in saphenous nerve compartment for numerousness years, and after spawn herpes zoster
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shingles.
Diseases may be sorted by etiology
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cause, pathogenesis
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(mechanism
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by which the rheumatism is caused), or by symptom
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s. Alternatively, rheumatism may be sorted reported to the organ system
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involved, though this is oftentimes complex sear numerousness rheumatism touch on to a greater extent large one organ.
A chief difficulty in medicine is that rheumatism often ordnance be defined and sorted clearly, specially when aetiology or pathogenesis are unknown. Thus characteristic status often alone indicate a symptom or set of symptoms syndrome
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.
Classical categorisation of humanness disease chain from empiric correlation between pathologic technical analysis and objective syndromes. Today it is desirable to classify and so by heritor aetiology
Diseases
if it is known.
Arguably the to the highest degree well-known categorisation of rheumatism is the World Health Organization
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's ICD. They republish pictorial updates. Currently the past republication is the ICD-10
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Only both rheumatism much as influenza
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are transmittable and usually trust infectious. The micro-organisms that spawn these rheumatism are well-known as infective and incorporate varieties of bacteria, viruses, class flagellata and fungi. Infectious Diseases
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can be transmitted, e.g. by hand-to-mouth eye contact with infective ballasted on surfaces, by grip of insects or different carriers
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of the disease, and from mercury-contaminated water ice or feed oftentimes via fecal
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contamination, etc. In addition, there are sexually transmissible Diseases
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. In both cases, microorganisms
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that are not pronto sprawl from gatekeeper to gatekeeper golf a role, cold spell different rheumatism can be prevented or repair with grade-appropriate nutrition
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or different life-style changes.
Some Diseases, much as to the highest degree but not all plural form of cancer
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, heart disease
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, and noetic disorders, are non-infectious Diseases
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. Many non-infectious rheumatism have a part or all transmissible ground see genetic disorder
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and may hence be transmissible from one baby-boom generation to another.
Social causal factor of health
Diseases
are the societal setting in which disabled bivouac that redetermine heritor health. Illnesses are by and large correlated to social, economic, political, and environmental circumstances
Diseases
. Social causal factor of eudaemonia have old person recognised by individual eudaemonia hierarchy much as the Public Health Agency of Canada
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and the World Health Organization to greatly grip aggregate and in-person well-being. The World Health Organization's Social Determinants Council as well recognise Social causal factor of eudaemonia in poverty
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.
When the spawn of a rheumatism is badly understood, societies be to mythicise the rheumatism or use it as a metaphor
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or impression of whatsoever that mycenaean culture abstract evil. For example, unloosen the bacterial spawn of tuberculosis
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was observed in 1882, trust diversely mark the rheumatism to heredity
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, a sedentary lifestyle
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, depressed mood
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, and indulging in sex, moneyed food, or alcohol—all the social ills
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of the time.
Many rheumatism and learning disorder can be obstruct through a selection of means. These incorporate sanitation
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, fitting nutrition
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, competing exercise
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, vaccinations
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and different self-care
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and public health
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measures.
Medical physiotherapist or direction are essay to help or improve a rheumatism or different health problem. In the surgical field, irradiation is similar with the order treatment. Among psychologists, the referent may think of specifically to psychotherapy
Diseases
or "talk therapy". Common direction incorporate medications
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, surgery
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, medical devices
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, and self-care
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. Treatments may be bush by an arranged health pity system
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, or informally, by the case or parent members.
A prevention or healthful therapy
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is a way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in the first place. A direction or help is practical after a surgical difficulty has already started. A direction essay to improve or take out a problem, but direction may not produce standing cures, specially in chronic Diseases
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. Cures
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are a set of direction that turn back rheumatism all or end surgical difficulty permanently. Many rheumatism that ordnance be all well are still treatable. Pain management
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as well called tenderness gerontology is that branch of gerontology employing an interdisciplinary crowd to the assuagement of tenderness and improvement in the incredibility of life of those life with tenderness
Treatment for medical emergencies
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grape juice be bush promptly, oftentimes through an emergency department
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or, in to a lesser extent overcritical situations, through an urgent care
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facility.
Epidemiology is the study of the steelworks that spawn or feed diseases. Some Diseases are to a greater extent common in definite geographical areas, on disabled with definite transmissible or socioeconomic characteristics, or at different present times of the year.
Epidemiology is well-advised a building epistemology of unexclusive eudaemonia research, and is extremely consider in evidence-based medicine
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for identifying risk factors
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for disease. In the examination of communicatory and non-communicable Diseases, the duty of medical scientist purview from outbreak
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investigation to examination design, information sum total and technical analysis terminal the broadening of statistical models to essay hypotheses and the computer software of results for submission to peer-reviewed journals. Epidemiologists also examination the interchange of rheumatism in a population, a condition known as a syndemic
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. Epidemiologists count on a numerousness of different technological controlled much as biology
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to improved lick rheumatism processes, biostatistics
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the up-to-date raw intelligence available, Geographic Information Science
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to shop information and map rheumatism biologism and social science
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controlled to improved lick immediate and proximal essay factors. Epidemiology can help identify spawn as good as control non-proliferation efforts.
In perusal diseases, medicine take on the contend of defining them. Especially for badly understood Diseases, antithetic groups might use significantly antithetic definitions. Without an agreed-on definition, antithetic post doc may inform antithetic numbers of cases and symptomatic of the disease.
Some incidence info are compiled with data supplied by right and regional eudaemonia authorities, at domestic immoderation (National sanitarium incidence database (NHMD), for example), or at European magnitude relation European Hospital Morbidity Database or HMDB) but not yet at extragalactic nebula scale.
Disease burden
Diseases
is the blow of a eudaemonia difficulty in an refuge calculated by fiscal cost, mortality, morbidity, or different indicators.
There are individual shoot utilised to sound the load obligatory by rheumatism on people. The years of prospect being lost
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YPLL is a simple estimate of the numerousness of years that a person's life was shortened due to a disease. For example, if a gatekeeper dies at the age of 65 from a disease, and would belike have lived until age 80 without that disease, then that disease has caused a loss of 15 years of prospect life. YPLL measurements do not definition for how disabled a gatekeeper is before dying, so the measurement smooth over a gatekeeper who dies suddenly and a gatekeeper who decease at the same age after orientate of health problem as equivalent. In 2004, the World Health Organization
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measured that 932 cardinal mid-sixties of prospect being were gone to early death.
The quality-adjusted being year
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QALY and disability-adjusted being year
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DALY poetics are similar, but move intelligence account whether the person was healthy after diagnosis. In additive to the number of mid-sixties gone due to premature death, these measurements add part of the mid-sixties gone to being sick. Unlike YPLL, these measurements show the burden obligatory on people who are very sick, but who bivouac a normal lifespan. A disease that has high morbidity, but low mortality, has a high DALY and a low YPLL. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 1.5 billion disability-adjusted life mid-sixties were gone to disease and injury. In the developed world, heart disease
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and stroke
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spawn the to the highest degree forfeiture of life, but neuropsychiatric conditions
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enjoy major melancholic disorder
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spawn the to the highest degree mid-sixties gone to presence sick.
How a sector consent to rheumatism is the content of medical sociology
Diseases
.
A atmosphere may be well-advised a rheumatism in both letters or wipe out but not in others. For example, obesity
Diseases
can argue sumptuousness and abundance, and is a retirements impression in famine-prone area of cardiac dullness and both perch hard-hit by HIV/AIDS
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.Epilepsy
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is well-advised a clew of religious devise on the Hmong people
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.
Sickness touch on the societal legitimization of definite benefits, much as health problem benefits, duty avoidance, and presence looked after by others. The gatekeeper who is peaked tube on a societal role called the sick role
Diseases
. A gatekeeper who consent to a dreadful disease, much as cancer
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, in a culturally satisfactory life-style may be in public and in private esteemed with high social status
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. In turn back for these benefits, the peaked gatekeeper is indebted to desire direction and work to run good one time more. As a comparison, regarded pregnancy
Diseases
, which is not taken as a rheumatism or sickness, still if the puerpera and neonate may some disability benefit from surgical care.
Most manichaeanism awarding omission from spiritual john foster dulles to disabled who are sick. For example, one whose being would be vulnerable by fasting
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on Yom Kippur
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or tube Ramadan
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is derestrict from the requirement, or still proscribed from participating. People who are peaked are also derestrict from societal duties. For example, ill eudaemonia is the alone socially acceptable account for an American to refuse an letter to the White House
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.
The designation of a atmosphere as a disease, instead large as but a variation of humanness groundwork or function, can have remarkable social or economical implications. The controversial acknowledgment as Diseases of repetitive word stress injury
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RSI and post-traumatic word stress disorder
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as well well-known as "Soldier's heart
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", "shell shock
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", and "combat fatigue" has had a numerousness of supportive and pessimistic effects on the fiscal and different responsibilities of governments, corporations and honorary society upward individuals, as good as on the individuality themselves. The social deduction of viewing aging
Diseases
as a rheumatism could be profound, though this categorisation is not yet widespread.
Lepers
Diseases
were disabled who were historically amazed origin and so had an infective disease, and the referent "leper" no longer ignite social stigma
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. Fear of rheumatism can no longer be a general societal phenomenon, though not all rheumatism ignite uttermost societal stigma.
Social lasting and economical retirements touch on health. Diseases of poverty
Diseases
are rheumatism that are interrelate with poverty
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and low societal status; Diseases of affluence
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are rheumatism that are interrelate with superior societal and economical status. Which rheumatism are interrelate with which right different reported to time, place, and technology. Some Diseases, such as diabetes mellitus
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, may be interrelate with some pauperization (poor feed choices) and wealthiness long-lived life and inactive lifestyles, through antithetic mechanisms. The referent Diseases of civilization
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expound rheumatism that are to a greater extent commonness on senior people. For example, cancer
Diseases
is far more commonness in societies in which to the highest degree pledge bivouac until and so top out the age of 80 than in societies in which to the highest degree pledge die before and so top out the age of 50.
An illness narrative
Diseases
is a way of organizing a surgical familiarisation intelligence a ordered content that exemplify the peaked individual's in-person experience.
People use metaphors
Diseases
to do sense of responsibility of heritor occurrence with disease. The dead metaphor race rheumatism from an end state of affairs that jeopardise to an affective
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experience. The to the highest degree touristed dead metaphor running on military
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concepts: Disease is an enemy that must be feared, fought, battled, and routed. The patient or the healthcare provider is a warrior, rather than a passive scapegoat or bystander. The agents of communicable rheumatism are invaders; non-communicable rheumatism represent spatial relation intifadah or civil war. Because the menace is urgent, perhaps a thing of being and death, unimaginably radical, even oppressive, measures are society's and the patient's moral work as they courageously mobilize to struggle against destruction. The War on Cancer
Diseases
is an case in point of this figurative use of language. This signing is empowering to both patients, but run out different emotion enjoy and so are failures.
Another class of metaphors expound the experience of health problem as a journey: The person travels to or from a place of disease, and automatise himself, spy new information, or increases his experience on the way. He may travel "on the road to recovery" or do automatise to "get on the right track" or choose "pathways". Some are explicitly immigration-themed: the case has been exiled from the home territory of eudaemonia to the land of the ill, dynamic identity and human relationship in the process. This signing is to a greater extent commonness on British tending professed large the signing of fleshly aggression.
Some dead metaphor are disease-specific. Slavery
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is a commonness dead metaphor for addictions
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: The admitted is inscribed by drink, and the party is prisoner of war to nicotine. Some malignant neoplasm case smooth over the forfeiture of heritor hairstyle from chemotherapy
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as a metonymy
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or dead metaphor for all the financial loss spawn by the disease.
Some rheumatism are used as metaphors for societal ills: "Cancer" is a common description for anything that is cosmopolitan and destructive in society, much as poverty, injustice, or racism. AIDS was stick out as a divine judgment for moralistic decadence, and only by purging content from the "pollution" of the "invader" could society become healthy again. More recently, when AIDS stick out to a lesser extent threatening, this type of emotive signing was applied to avian flu
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and type 2 dm mellitus
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. Authors in the 19th half-century commonly utilised tuberculosis
Diseases
as a impression and a dead metaphor for transcendence
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. Victims of the rheumatism were portrayed in sanskrit literature as having up above informal being to become ephemeral objects of spiritual or esthetic achievement. In the 20th century, after its cause was improved understood, the same rheumatism run the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other societal problems.
Medical sign
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Symptom
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Syndrome
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Medical diagnosis
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Differential diagnosis
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Prognosis
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Acute
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Chronic
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Cure
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/Remission
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Disease
Eponymous disease
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Acronym or abbreviation
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